Breastfeeding: Milk Reflex

Female breast produce in breastfed babies milk, which can feed an infant. The breasts, which mostly consists of adipose tissue, also contains milk-producing glands (lobules). The milk-producing glands are associated with the nipple via an extensive network of small called milk times.


The breasts produce milk of water and nutrients that are taken from the mother’s bloodstream, based on a research by itypetravel. The milk will be stored in the milk-producing glands until the hormone oxytocin gives the signal that the small muscles around the glands must pull together and empty milk out through the milk ducts. This gets called for milk reflex.


Ectopic Pregnancy


  • Ectopic pregnancy is seen in between 1.5 and 2% of all pregnant
  • The typical symptoms are sparse vaginal bleeding and pain in the lower abdomen
  • Ultrasound scan and measurements of the pregnancy hormone in the blood will in most cases be able to make the diagnosis
  • By violent pain or cardiovascular impact will an acute keyhole surgery be necessary
  • Treatment may be surgery, medical treatment or pending (the pregnancy tissue may be destroyed)


What is ectopic pregnancy?

By an ectopic pregnancy puts the fertilized egg stuck outside the uterine cavity. The fertilized eggs will then in 95% of cases sit in the fallopian tubes, but they can also be grown into the ovaries, cervix or in rare cases in the abdominal cavity. The fertilized egg can the first time grow outside the uterus. In many cases this happens in the fallopian tube. As it is narrow, and expand and stretches the fallopian tube may rupture if the pregnancy continues to grow.


Typical genes by this mode is lack of menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain and sparse bleeding from the vagina. The main symptom is pain in the lower abdomen and usually sits in on one side. If the fallopian tube bursts, the pain can suddenly change character and become very intense.


Pregnancy symptoms such as nausea, breast tenderness and pregnancy feeling is, as a general rule, discrete. Symptoms begin six to eight weeks after the last menstrual period. Individual is not aware that they are pregnant.


How frequent is ectopic pregnancy?

1.5 to 2% of all pregnancies.


What is due to ectopic pregnancy?

Fertilization usually happens right on the ovary or in the outer part of the fallopian tube. Previous infection or injury of a different kind, which can cause adhesions and scarring around the fallopian tube, can prevent transport of the fertilized egg from the fallopian tube to the uterus. Instead puts the fertilized eggs become lodged in the fallopian tube.


Former inflammations in the peritoneum or the abdomen, previous pregnancies outside the womb, and operations for infertility brings increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. Spiral protects against pregnancy in the uterus, but not against ectopic pregnancy. If there is a pregnancy with at the same time spiral, is the likelihood of ectopic pregnancy about 10%.


Recent research has shown that smoking is associated with increased risk of ectopic pregnancy.

Postpartum Depression


  • Postpartum depression occurs in about 6% of all women in labor
  • It is important to distinguish from easier modes that do not need treatment
  • The symptoms are the same as for other types of depression. However, the load is particularly great because you’ve got a toddler
  • In severe cases, the relationship to the child and its development be affected
  • Often leads to depression of birth relationship problems and possibly divorce


What is postpartum depression?

Postpartum depression (defined by sciencedict) is a frequent complication of childbirth. The condition can range from minor discomfort to severe depression. It must be present most of the day about every day for two weeks or more in order to meet the requirements for the diagnosis of postpartum depression.


A depression episode is perceived as a postpartum depression, if it starts within 6 months after a birth. The symptoms are the same as women who have not given birth get in depression: depressed mood, crying, lack of ability to rejoice, insomnia, fatigue, decreased appetite, suicidal thoughts, memory and concentration problems. But the problems, as the great depression causes, are of course particularly stressful, when you’ve got a child and must be breastfeeding, etc. to function.


How frequent is postpartum depression?

The incidence of postpartum depression exchanger something depending on how you measure it. But a Danish study showed that about 6% of all women who had given birth had this disease. Many women do not get diagnosed-and thus also does not help, because they do not cater to medical or health nurse then tells about how they have it. The incidence higher among very young mothers seem.

Diabetes In Pregnancy

Diabetes, diabetes, can occur during pregnancy. Approximately 5% of all pregnant women develop this condition called gestational diabetes (pregnancy conditional diabetes).


In people with diabetes is the body unable to use insulin. Insulin is the hormone that is produced in the pancreas, and that makes the body unable to transform the food we consume, to energy. The energy stored in the form of sugar, or glucose. When insulin is released into the blood, it becomes possible for glucose to enter the cells.


In people with diabetes will not be produced, either insulin or it does not work properly. The body cannot pull glucose out of the blood and into the cells where it is needed. Glucose levels rise in the blood while the cells are starving for energy. Pregnancy diabetes, diabetes conditional, which typically occurs between 24. and 28. week of gestation in women who have not previously had diabetes, or where diabetes was not discovered before they were pregnant.


During pregnancy the placenta produces hormones which comes over in the bloodstream, and that affects the body’s ability to use insulin. The accumulation of glucose circulating in the mother’s blood can cross the placenta and cause problems for the child.


Children born to mothers with pregnancy conditional on diabetes will often be greater than the equivalent of the length. Similarly, the child will have tendency to low blood sugar.


These newborn children has also increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Fortunately, pregnancy diabetes, a condition that is easy to treat. Most women with pregnancy diabetes give birth normal, healthy children.


It is important that women with pregnancy diabetes gets controlled their blood sugar regularly, eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, keep the weight and, in general, will be checked regularly.

Rectal Injury During Pregnancy

The vaginal opening and the anus is located right next to each other. In connection with the birth can a rift or rupture from the vaginal opening at the rear against the rectum cause the sphincter muscle of the rectum completely or partially torn over (anal sphincter). This can lead to get failing control of rectal function and trouble keeping on air and feces (fecal incontinence). This is a condition that can lead to significant psychological and social problems. Read more on relationshipsplus.


The presence of visible damage to the sphincter after vaginal birth shows great variation, from 0.4% to 24%. It is argued that only a small proportion of the women who get renewable genes after an injury to the sphincter, contact the health service regarding this. There is therefore a large and hidden problem.

What is Impetigo Herpetiformis?

This is a rare skin disease that occurs in the second half of pregnancy. About this disease is specific to pregnancy or only will be aggravated by pregnancy, is controversial. It is a form of so-called pustulær psoriasis.


Bodily symptoms may be nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever (see, chills and enlarged lymph nodes. The rash consists of round, curved or polygonal patches covered with small, painful puspropper (pustules). A causal relationship appears most often on the thighs and groin, but the rash can flow together and spread to the body, arms and legs. Face, hands and feet are not attacked.


Reported increased risk for the fetus, which warrants further monitoring late in pregnancy. The treatment is cortisone tablets. By infections used antibiotics. The condition usually disappears after birth, but it can come back in later pregnancies.

What are the symptoms of ectopic pregnancy?

It is the lack of menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain and vaginal bleeding.

What symptoms you should pay particular attention to?

Acute onset and severe pelvic pain in women who are or may be pregnant potential.


How made the diagnosis?

Pain, lack of menstruation and scanty bleeding from the vagina is typical genes. In order to make the diagnosis, to make a urine examination to see if the woman is pregnant. The test is positive, the doctor performs an ultrasound examination of the abdomen, which may or may not demonstrate a visible pregnancy outside the womb. If you cannot view the pregnancy by ultrasound, repeated measurements of the pregnancy hormone see stagnant values and thereby have a strong suspicion of the diagnosis. If the woman is much pain pained or influenced, made the diagnosis by keyhole surgery (laparoscopy), which simultaneously can treat the condition.


What treatment is there?

Suspected ectopic pregnancy will always lead to hospitalization to get a safety for the diagnosis. When the diagnosis is certain, there will in most cases be carried out keyhole surgery.


If the diagnosis is made early, before there is damage on the fallopian tube, one can afford to wait for the development. With 50-70% ends up in pregnancy an abortion without damage. The course followed with repeated blood tests (pregnancy hormone). Decreasing values is evidence that pregnancy back formed and decomposes by the woman’s immune system.


How is long-term prospects?

The fallopian tubes can rupture and be completely ruined. Inability to have children due to damage to the fallopian tubes can then occur. By rupture of the fallopian tube can be internal bleeding, which can be life-threatening. Quick treatment is important.


By early diagnosis and proper treatment is the prognosis good. It is important, however, to be on guard for similar symptoms at the new pregnancy, since the risk is increased in women who have had an ectopic pregnancy.


How do I avoid getting or exacerbating an ectopic pregnancy?

Protection against sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia by condom use. In addition, it appears that smoking, IVF and insemination with donor sperm increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy.

Pregnancy Itching

This is a condition that occurs in 0.5 to 1% of all pregnant and is seen most commonly in the third trimester. The cause is unknown. Emergence of Red papules and nodules on stretching the sides of the arms and legs.


Pregnancy itching can in some cases be expression of disease of the bile ducts and liver (see references below). It is therefore necessary to get blood tests that can show whether the liver is functioning normally. If liver tests are normal, the condition is benign. It is not demonstrated that this benign condition has any adverse effect on the fetus. Treatment consists in using means strong cortisone ointments or allergy medicine. It is not unusual that a pregnant woman experiencing prolonged itching that persists for weeks to months after birth.

Allergies and Pregnancy

Pregnant women, babies and toddlers’ parents are often very concerned with what they can do to prevent their child develop food allergies.


Many are unsure as to what is best for the child. Also among health professionals is that uncertainty around these issues. Health Agency recommends that breastfeeding (see breastfeeding problems on homeagerly) fully the first six months, in order to reduce the risk of the child get allergies.


Bacteria in the Urine

Urinary tract infection in pregnant women is very common. There are several pregnant women who get it than in non-pregnant women. In pregnant women is also much more often spread from the bladder infection for renal pelvic inflammatory disease.


Typical symptoms of cystitis are smarting when urinating and frequent urination, and, in some cases, pain or discomfort over the bladder. In addition, based on healthinclude, if the woman has a fever, and possibly back or abdominal pain may indicate the spread to the kidneys with renal pelvic inflammatory disease.


No symptoms (asymptomatic bacteriuria) bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine, without the woman has any symptoms from the urinary tract. The condition occurs in 2% of pregnant women. Treatment of pregnant women is important.


Among pregnant women, who are not being treated for bacteria (see historyaah) in the urine, have you seen a frequency of premature childbirth, children with low birth weight, inflammation of the lining of the uterus in maternity period and complicated urinary tract infections. 20-40% of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria untreated will get acute renal pelvic inflammatory disease, while treatment reduces the risk of 1-4%. A renal pelvis inflammation during pregnancy can be serious. It can cause blood poisoning in the mother and complications for the child.